In 1918 Poland regained its sovereignty as a parliamentary republic. The borders were formed after three years of wars against Germany, Soviet Russia, Czechoslovakia, Lithuania and Ukrainian forces.
Most of the country is located on lowlands. On the south there are upland areas with two major mountain chains – the Carpathians (Karpaty) and the Sudetes (Sudety). The Baltic sea coastline on the north measures 770 km. The longest river, Vistula (Wisła) is 1,047 km (678 miles) long.
Poland is a parliamentary republic. Prime Minister and Council of Ministers led by him are the leading institutions. The President is a head of state and is elected every five years in a popular election.
- Area : 312,679 km
- Population : 38,346,279